You want to know if GFI LanGuard can deploy updates without using an SMB share.
No, GFI LanGuard requires SMB share for patch deployment, agent management, and computer auditing. Please, refer to the KB article Ports and Protocols Used by GFI LanGuard for details.
In the event where SMB is not enabled or is blocked, LanGuard won't be able to manage agents or deploy patches, and scanning operations will be severely affected too. LanGuard will gather as much information as possible from NetBIOS and port banners; however, the machine can only be scanned for open TCP and UDP ports. Minimal information is retrieved in this case.